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  • Heat


    • People 65 and over (especially those living in places without air conditioning);
    • People playing sports or working outdoors or in environments where the industrial activity produces heat;
    • Infants and young children (0 to 4 years of age);
    • People who live alone and those with reduced autonomy;
    • People with a chronic disease, mental health issue, addiction problem or living in homelessness.

    Children 0 to 4

    Never leave a child or pet alone in a car or poorly ventilated room, even for a few minutes.

    To learn more about the precautions to take for children (0 to 4 years old), read the following document for parents and caregivers (PDF).

    This content has been translated by The Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux du Centre-Sud-de-l'Île-de-Montréal into several languages: Arabic, Bengali, Simplified Chinese, Spanish, Farsi, GreekHaitian, HindiItalian, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian, Tagalog, Tamil, Vietnamese, and Yiddish.


    How can you help those who hare more vulnerable?

    • Check in on them regularly.
    • Make sure they are following the prevention tips and offer to get them help, if need be.


    Watch for heat warnings and follow Environment Canada recommandations.

    Hydrate often

    • Drink plenty of water, without waiting to be thirsty. Follow your doctor's recommendations regarding the amount of liquid to drink, if applicable.
    • Avoid drinks with high caffeine or alcohol content, as they can increase dehydration.
    • For breastfed babies, nurse on demand. For formula-fed babies, offer formula frequently. For babies over six months old, offer small amounts of water after or between feedings.

    Cool off often

    • Take a cool shower or bath as often as necessary. Swim in a pool if possible.
    • Cool your skin with a wet towel several times a day on your face, arms, and neck, and spray water on your face.
    • Spend at least a few hours a day in an air-conditioned or cooler place in your home. You could also visit a public place (e.g., library, shaded park) or spend a few hours in a public pool or water play area. Check the Ville de Laval website.


    Keep your home below 26°C

    • Use an air conditioning system to keep your home temperature below 26°C.
    • If there is no air conditioning system:
      • open windows at 8 PM to let in cool air and use fans to circulate air inside;
      • keep windows closed between 10 AM and 8 PM to trap cool air inside;
      • close curtains and blinds between 10 AM and 8 PM to block the sun;
      • minimize the use of heat-generating appliances (e.g., oven, stove, dryer);
      • plan to go to an air-conditioned place if the indoor temperature consistently exceeds 31°C.


    Protect yourself from the heat and the sun outdoors

    • Limit physical exertion. For children, limit intense outdoor activities such as endurance sports.
    • Keep babies and young children in the shade.
    • Wear light-colored clothing, sunglasses that protect against UVA and UVB rays, a wide-brimmed hat, and sunscreen approved by the Canadian Dermatology Association
    • Plan your activities during the cooler times of the day (before 11 AM and after 6 PM).
    • Plan your activities during the cooler times of the day (before 10 AM and after 6 PM).
    • Encourage activities before 10 a.m. and after 4 p.m., when the heat is less intense.


    Help each others

    • Check in with your loved ones and don't hesitate to ask for help from those around you during periods of extreme heat, especially if your indoor temperature exceeds 26°C:
      • vulnerable people should regularly invite their loved ones (family, neighbors, friends).

    • Relatives of elderly people with loss of autonomy or living alone should call them daily and visit them regularly.

    To learn more, consult the fact sheet It’s really hot!” (PDF).

    This content has been translated by The Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux du Centre-Sud-de-l'Île-de-Montréal into several languages: 

    Arabic, BengaliSimplified Chinese, Traditionnnal Chinese, SpanishFarsiGreekHaitianHindiItalianPortuguesePunjabiRussianTagalogTamil, Vietnamese, and Yiddish.

    An audio capsule is also available in the following languages: EnglishSpanishHaitianPunjabiHindiArabicMandarinTagalogBanglaYiddishVietnamesePortugueseItalianRussian and Lingala.

    Symptoms that require monitoring changes in health


    It is important to monitor any deterioration in the health of an adult who has the following symptoms:

    • Headaches
    • Muscular cramps
    • Swollen hands, feet and ankles
    • Appearance of small red bumps on the skin, called a “heat rash”
    • Unusual fatigue or exhaustion
    • Generalized malaise
    • Signs of dehydration:
      • Intense thirst
      • Less frequent need to urinate
      • Dark urine
      • Dry skin
      • Rapid pulse and breathing

    If you have questions about your health, call Info‑Santé 811 or consult a health professional, a pharmacist for instance.

    When to consult 

    Other symptoms, however, require immediate medical attention, meaning within 2 hours. An adult who has one or more of the following symptoms must be taken to the emergency room immediately or 9‑1‑1 must be called on their behalf:

    • Difficulty breathing
    • Convulsions (stiffness of the body and jerky, involuntary muscle contractions)
    • Signs of impaired consciousness:
      • Confusion
      • Unusual behaviour
      • Agitation
      • Hallucinations
      • No response to stimuli
      • Loss of consciousness

    • Signs of heat stroke:
      • Temperature over 39.5 ºC (103.1 ºF) with an oral thermometer or over 40 ºC (104 ºF) with a rectal thermometer
      • Dry, red, hot skin or pale, cold skin
      • Dizziness and vertigo
      • Confused and illogical speech
      • Aggressive or bizarre behaviour
      • Generalized malaise
      • Heat stroke is the most serious effect of heat. It can occur suddenly and quickly lead to death if not treated.

    Babies or children

    Certain symptoms may indicate the presence of heat-related complications:

    • Dry skin, lips or mouth
    • Abnormal skin colour (red or pale)
    • Headaches
    • Sunken eyes with dark rings
    • Dark and smaller quantity of urine
    • Vomiting, diarrhea
    • Unusual restlessness, irritability or confusion
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Drowsiness, prolonged sleep and difficulty waking up
    • Body temperature over 38.5ºC (101.3ºF) with a rectal thermometer or over 37.5ºC (99.5ºF) with an oral thermometer (Note: Using an oral thermometer to take the temperature of newborns, babies and children under 5 years old is not recommended.)

    When to consult

    A child’s health, especially a very young child, can deteriorate quickly and be difficult to notice. When a baby or child shows symptoms, a medical consultation is usually necessary. If you are unsure, you can call Info‑Santé 811. In an emergency, call 9‑1‑1